Researchers have presented a new theory on the formation of dark matter. Remember that this is an essential element of the universe, because its quantity greatly exceeds that of stars, galaxies, dust and gas. Its origin exceeds the limits of known physics, unlike ordinary matter. The elucidation of this mystery is, however, necessary for the understanding of the creation of the universe itself.
The universe, just after its birth, would have known two processes which would have followed one another and which could be linked to each other. First, a well-known phenomenal event – the Big Bang – led matter to exclude antimatter. Then there would have been another, more mysterious, that produced dark matter.
This enigmatic phenomenon which contributed to the appearance of dark matter would have occurred just after the Big Bang. He could also be involved in the victory of matter over antimatter.
A study based on the symmetry of baryon numbers
In December 2020, a team conducted research based on what is called "the symmetry of baryon numbers" . Baryons are particles like protons and neutrons. Symmetry means that the number of baryons entering an interaction is equal to the number leaving it. Particles can change their identity, but their number must remain the same.
Matter and antimatter are two identical elements, but with an opposite electric charge. A high-energy reaction that produces matter can also generate antimatter. That would have been the dynamics of things at the very beginning of the universe, but an imbalance would have meant that there was more matter than antimatter.
A mysterious kick of nature
The event that ruled out antimatter would have been violent and brief. This "kick" of nature would have caused the rupture of symmetry and allowed the appearance of a "Goldstone boson" . This is the name given to the new type of particle that results from any disruption of symmetry in nature. In the present context, it could be just dark matter.
It should be noted that the new model excludes the 80/20 distribution between matter and antimatter. On the contrary, the study suggests that the two elements are distributed in a more or less balanced way. In addition, the new theory assumes that matter and antimatter originate from the same phenomenon. In their next research, the scientists plan to make this enigmatic event believed to have contributed to the formation of dark matter their object of study.